Reversing a Rune changes it's meaning, so "Fehu" right side up means material gain, and inverted it means poverty. (The reversal is called a merkstave, which loosely stands for dark meaning) Runes from different Futharks and Rune Sets should not be used together in a mixed fashion, for this clouds their meaning and your pathway. In modern times we find a blank Rune called "Wyrd". This is not an original Rune, but a modern creation (many believe it should not be used). Runes come in many forms, carved into rock, stone, wood, and even glass.
Limited meanings for the Runes pictured above are as follows (the meaning falls in the same order the Rune Picture appears):
Fehu: Possessions, earnings, luck, social success, prosperity. Reversed: Loss, disappointment, failure.
Daeg: Growth, ambition, increase, awakening. Reversed: (Daeg can't be reversed, but may lie "in opposition") coming full-circle, hopelessness.
Beorc: Home and family, birth (it's a fertility Rune). Reversed: Domestic trouble, anxiety about a loved one.
Sigel: Victory, great health, vitality. Reversed: it is so powerful and positive it cannot be reversed.
Kenaz: Strength, power, energy. Reversed: Loss, ending.
Mannaz: Cooperation, aid. Reversed: Obstacles, no help from others.
Nied: Patience, passing through a difficult learning, constraint. Reversed: Improper course of action, think twice about starting new projects.
Othel: Possessions, money. Reversed: Delay, frustration
Raidho: Travel (sometimes "of the soul"), change of place or setting. Reversed: Unexpected journey, disruption (Ex: other people visiting at a bad time), delays or breakdowns.
Tir: Motivation, success, competitive spirit. Reversed: Waning enthusiasm, lack of fidelity.
Perdho: Rune of Mystery, secret..(Experts cannot agree on it's meaning). Reversed: Unpleasant surprises, nasty secrets revealed.
Eolh: Fortunate new influence, protection, new relationship. Reversed: Vulnerability, sacrifice with no personal gain, being mislead.
Thurisaz: Protection, luck. Reversed: Caution advised but not followed, luck "running out".
Eihwaz: Physical movement or shifts, new dwelling place, change. Reversed: it does not automatically assume a negative-it depends on surrounding Runes.
Uruz: Good health, resistance. Reversed: Failure, weak will power.
Ansuz: Acquisition of wisdom, test, taking advise. Reversed: Lies, trickery, deceit.
Gifu: Gift, partnership, generosity. Reversed: it is so powerful and positive it cannot be reversed.
Wunjo: Joy, happiness, success. Reversed: it is so powerful and positive it cannot be reversed, but it's meaning can be affected by surrounding Runes.
Hagall: Disruption, limitation, delay. Reversed: It cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition depending on surrounding Runes.
Isa: Delay, challenge, frustration. Reversed: It cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition depending on surrounding Runes.
Jera: Harvest rewards (can be Karmic), justice. Reversed: It cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition depending on surrounding Runes.
Lagaz: Intuitive knowledge, psychic matters, renewal, mysteries. Reversed: Temptation to follow the wrong path, confusion.
Ing: Successful conclusions, change to better, rest stage. Reversed: It cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition depending on surrounding Runes.
Wyrd: (not shown) Karma, destiny.
If you wish to delve into Runes in depth here is a great learning site: http://www.irminsul.org/arc/017sg.html
Jupiter: Colors are royal blue and purple. Stones are lapis lazuli, amethyst, turquoise, and sapphire. Incenses are lilac, nutmeg, and cedar.
Mars: Colors are all shades of red. Stones are bloodstone, garnet, red agate, ruby, and red topaz. Incense is dragon's blood.
Mercury: Colors are orange, pale yellow, violet, and multi. Stones are carnelian, fire opal, and agate. Incense is white sandalwood.
Moon: Colors are silver, lavender, cream, light grey, pearl white, and pale blue. Stones are moonstone, clear quartz crystal, beryl, and pearl. Incenses are white rose, myrtle, mugwort, camphor, lily, jasmine, and lotus.
Saturn: Colors are black, darkest blue, darkest purple, and dark brown. Stones are onyx, jet, pearl, and star sapphire. Incenses are poppy, myrrh, civet, and storax.
Sun: Colors are gold and deep yellow. Stones are zircon, jacinth, goldstone, yellow topaz, and yellow diamond. Incenses are heliotrope, orange blossom, clove, frankincense, ambergris, musk, cinnamon, and vanilla.
Venus: Colors are green, pale blue, and pink. Stones are amber, malachite, jade, peridot, coral, emerald, and turquoise. Incenses are apple blossom, musk, verbena, rose, and red sandalwood.
Folk Name: Aluminium (British)
Powers: Mental Abilities, Travel, Image Magic
In magic small pieces of aluminum can be carried to stimulate mental abilities. Due to its modern associations with travel, aluminum is also utilized in spells involving trips to distant lands. Aluminum foil can be a tool of image magic. Place a large sheet of foil on your stone altar. Light candles of the color that suits your magical need. With your magical need in mind, form the foil into the proper shape. Let the shape fuel your visualization; send energy into and through it to bring your need into manifestation. When finished, smooth out the foil and douse it with water. Dry, flatten and use the same foil every day. Repeat until you are successful.
Recycling aluminum is a new form of "magic", wherein we transform garbage into money. It's economically, ecologically and magically sound, so if you have a recycling center nearby, save your aluminum and transform it into "gold".
There are some that say you should not cook, eat or drink from aluminum as it may lead to Alzheimer's Disease. That is a choice you will have to make for yourself. If you want more information on that subject, I suggest you research aluminum and Alzheimer's and Daniel Perl, Neuropathologist (the man that is involved in research linking aluminum to Alzheimer's) But, even he, in an article in Discover magazine, Sept. 1992, written by Peter Radetsky, says that the amount of aluminum from cook pots is not enough to matter.
Wear a small piece of antimony to guard against negative vibrations. This white metal can also be worn or carried for protection. Bits added to combinations of protective stones strengthens their powers.
Elements: Fire, Akasha
Powers: Power, Protection, Healing, Balancing Energies
Boji Stones are something of an enigma. Experts aren't sure just what they are - crystalline forms of iron? Pseudomorphs (wherein organic or mineral substances are replaced with, in this case, metal)? Whatever they are, Boji stones emit forceful, projective vibrations. They appear to be useful for balancing the body's energies, with the resultant effects of calming, grounding and healing. They are certainly protective, in that they charge up our psychic defenses. As for their other uses, maybe they will be discovered with use.
Associated Metals: Gold
Powers: Healing, Money, Protection
Brass has long been used as a magical substitute for gold. While it doesn't possess all of gold's attributes, brass is used in money-attracting rituals. For example, at sunrise, empower eight small brass bells and eight green candles with your need for money. Do this in direct sunlight if possible. Place the candles (in holders) in a roughly square shape (two on each side). Ring each of the bells over a candle and visualize.
Brass has also been used in ritual healing. Wearing a brass ring, for example, is said to halt stomach cramps. A brass key placed on the nape of the neck or dropped down the back is an old spell to stop nosebleeds. This yellowish gold metal is also protective. Brass jewelry is worn to guard the person. It is used in defensive magic to send negativity back to its sender. Empowered brass objects are placed in the home for protective purposes.
Deities: Aphrodite, Astarte, Ishtar
Associated Stones: Quartz Crystal, Emerald
Associated Herb: Mimosa
Powers: Energy Direction, Healing, Luck, Love, Protection, Money
Copper, a reddish orange metal, has long been linked with the divine. During ancient Mesopotamian times it was attributed to the Queen of Heaven as well as to the goddesses associated with the planet Venus. These include Ishtar, Astarte and perhaps Inanna, the Sumarian predecessor to the first two deities mentioned above.
It has also been sacred to the Sun in Babylon as well as to the early inhabitants of the Pacific Northwest (U.S.).
Copper is well known as a conductor of electricity. One modern use of this metal is to fashion wands of copper tubes. These are topped with quartz crystals and sometimes wrapped with leather or another shielding substance. Such wands are used in magical ritual to direct energy. This metal is also worn during ritual for the same purpose - to heighten the magician's ability to direct energy to the magical goal.
Copper has long been used to stimulate healing. This seems to be because of copper's ability to balance the body's polarity, or the flow of the projective and receptive energies. Blockages in this energy pattern, according to shamans and healers alike, lead to imbalances and thus disease. Pure copper, in any form is often worn for general healing and to prevent sickness. To be most effective in health-related applications, copper is usually worn on the left side of the body by those that are right handed, the reverse by left handers. Copper is a lucky metal, perhaps because of its past solar attributions, and so can be used in combination with any luck bringing gemstones. A metal of Venus, copper is worn to attract love. Emeralds, if you can afford them, can be set in copper and worn for this purpose. Anciently, seeds of the Mimosa (Acacia dealbata) were set into copper rings and worn, especially during confrontations, for protection against all manner of ills and negativity. And finally, copper is used to draw money. Though the pennies of the United States are no longer made of copper, older pennies, especially those minted in leap years, have long been placed in the kitchen to attract money to the household.
Electrum is a general term describing a mixture, or alloy, of metals. Gold, silver and platinum are often found, in some combination or other, in electrum used in magic. Naturally occurring electrum is rare and was once highly desired for use in magic. Today, even though electrum is produced through artificial means, this doesn't lessen its energies. Contemporary magical practitioners skilled in metalcraft make their own electrum for specific purposes. For example, a Wiccan dedicated to the old Goddess and God of nature might wear a ring or pendant of silver and gold electrum. This would be symbolic of the two primal deities.
Associated Stones: Quartz Crystal, Lapis Lazuli, Olivine, Peridot, Sardonyx, Sunstone, Topaz, Turquoise, Zircon (see articles on these stones for specific applications)
Associated Metals: Lodestone, Pyrite (see articles on these stones for specific applications)
Powers: Power, Healing, Protection, Wisdom, Money, Success, Male Sexual Dysfunction
Gold is intimately linked with divinity, particularly with gods associated with the Sun. Throughout the ages, wherever it was found or obtained through trade, gold was often the material of choice for fashioning sacred images and decorating altars. It was also considered to be the highest offering to the deities. Magicians working almost exclusively with solar energy wear gold ritual jewelry to attune with that power source. In Wicca, High Priests and those who revere the Sun as a symbol of the God often wear gold. Legend states that the Druids collected mistletoe with sickles of gold. Herbalists in the Middle Ages also used gold implements during herb harvesting to strengthen the powers of the plants they collected.
Gold, perhaps the most magically potent of all metals, is utilized in magic to lend its energy to rituals. Worn during magic, gold jewelry enhances the magician's ability to rouse and send forth power. Wearing gold in your everyday life increases your personal power, thus promoting courage, confidence and will power.
As mentioned above, gold tools were traditionally used to collect herbs. "Traditionally" because pure gold is to soft for this purpose. If you happen to have some gold plated knives lying around the house, they would be ideal fro herb collecting. Strictly speaking, use these to gather projective (masculine, positive or electric) herbs. Silver knives are better suited symbolically for the collection of receptive (feminine, negative, magnetic) herbs. Chains of gold are worn around the neck to preserve health, and gold bands are worn to alleviate arthritis. Gold worn habitually is said to ensure a long life. Owing to its solar gleam, gold is a protective metal. Plain gold can be carried or worn as a guardian. A special ring made of gold and studded with gold nails is also protective. To this day small children in India are guarded by tiny gold amulets. The gold crucifixes and crosses worn today by Christians are a survival or ancient Pagan customs. During protective or defensive magic, place gold objects or jewelry on the altar. A simple gold chain placed around a white candle can be the focus of protective rituals. Gold is also utilized to promote wisdom. For this purpose it is not carried but given to another, with no conditions. This is done to bring illumination to the giver. Since it has long been used as a medium of exchange, and due to its great value, gold often figures in money rituals. As a symbol of the Sun gold is utilized in success rituals. Wearing specially empowered gold has also been found to be helpful in relieving male sexual dysfunction (impotency).
Associated Stones: Quartz Crystal, Holey Stones
Associated Metals: Lodestone, Meteorite
Powers: Protection, Defensive Magic, Strength, Healing, Grounding, Return of Stolen Goods
Because iron is seldom found in pure form except in meteorites, the earliest iron available for use by humans was obtained from these strange celestial objects. Meteorites, which were observed falling from the heavens, were used to make simple tools, supplementing bone and stone implements by earlier humans. Throughout most of the world, humans eventually learned how to remove iron from its ore, which made it available for wider use. Once this occurred, it was soon limited to purely physical applications and was restricted in magic and religion. In ancient Greece, for example, no iron was brought into the temples. Roman priests could not be shaved or scraped with iron during bodily cleansing.
Ireland, Scotland, Finland, China, Korea, India and other countries have severe taboos against iron. Again and again in ancient rituals fire was made without iron, altars built without its use, and magical rituals performed only after divesting the body of all traces of the metal. Herbs were usually collected with non-iron knives, owing to the belief that the vibrations of this metal would "jam" or "confuse" the herb's energies.
The Hindus once believed that the use of iron in buildings would spread epidemics, and, even to this day, a gift of iron in any form is thought by some to be unlucky. However, iron did have its place in magic. Specifically, it was worn or used in protective rituals. Its powerful, projective vibrations were thought to be feared by demons, ghosts, fairies, genii and other fantastic creatures.
In China, dragons were thought to fear iron. When rain was needed, pieces of the metal were thrown into "dragon pools" to upset the creatures and send them into the sky in the form of rain clouds.
In old Scotland, iron was used to avert danger when a death had occurred in the house. Iron nails or knitting needles were thrust into every item of food - cheese, grain, meat and so on - to act as a lightening rod, attracting the confusing vibrations that death may arouse within the living and thus sparing the food of possible contamination.
Classical Romans drove nails into their house walls to preserve their health, especially during times of plague. Because of its protective effects iron was sometimes thought, conversely, to be sacred, and thieves in ancient Ireland wouldn't dare steal it.
Iron - pure projective power, active, seeking, blinding, confusing, guarding. For heavy protection, place small pieces of iron in each room of the house or bury at the four corners or your property. In earlier times, iron fences were sometimes used to halt the flow of negativity into the home. During protective or defensive magic, wear an iron ring engraved with the symbol of Mars. Or, obtain a three inch thick white candle and eight old iron nails. Warm the nails by a fire (or in a red candle's flame), then thrust each into the white candle in a random pattern. Light the nail-studded candle and visualize yourself as guarded, protected, secure.
Wearing iron or carrying a small piece if this metal enhances physical strength and is an excellent talisman for athletes.
Iron is also used during healing rituals. A small piece is placed beneath the pillow at night. This was originally done to scare away the "demons" that caused the disease but can be thought of as strengthening the body's ability to heal itself.
Iron rings or bracelets are worn to draw out illnesses from the body. This dates back to at least ancient Roman times.
A curious ritual from Germany to cure toothache: Pour oil onto a piece of heated iron. The fumes that rise from the heated iron will act on the problem.
In old Scotland, healing stones - quartz crystals or holey stones - were kept in iron boxes to guard against supernatural creatures who might steal them.
Iron is also worn for grounding, for closing down the psychic centers, and for impeding the flow of energy from the body. This, of course, isn't the best during magical ritual but is fine when the subject is under psychic or emotional attack, is physically depleted or wished to focus on physical matters.
Iron horseshoes and the nails that attach them to the hooves are ancient magical tools. They might have first been used in ancient Greece, where they were called seluna and associated with the Moon and the goddess Selene. A horseshoe hung in the home over the front door confers protection. While theories differ as to the "proper" way to hang the horseshoe, I always place it points up (so the luck doesn't run out, so to speak). Ideally it is to be nailed up with 3 of its original nails. An old iron horseshoe nail is sometimes bent into a ring (if you can find one long enough) and worn for luck and healing.
Associated Herbs: Rose, Nettle, Rue, Cumin
Powers: Divination, Protection, Defensive Magic
Lead has long been used in magic. In ancient Greek times tablets of this metal were ritually charged and inscribed with 'words of power'. These tablets were generally used in negative spells because the lead ensured the spell's long continuance.
In India during the 11th century, charms and figures designed to cause conception ot to increase the fertility of gardens and orchards were engraved on lead tablets.
Lead is a heavy metal which causes death when it's absorbed by the body. The ancient Romans discovered this by using lead dishes and cooking utensils.
Lead is worn and used in protective spells and also plays a part in defensive magic. It can be placed near the entrance of the house to prevent negativity from gaining access.
Folk Names: Magnetite, Magnet, Way Stone, Magnetis (Ancient Greek), Loadstone, Shadanu. Sabitu (Ancient Assyrian), Heraclean Stone, Piedra Iman (contemporary Spanish)
Associated Herbs: Sandalwood, Rose, Yarrow, Lavender
Associated Star: Polaris (the North Star)
Associated Stone: Coral
Associated Metals: Iron, Copper, Silver, Gold
Powers: Power, Healing, Attraction, Friendship, Love, Fidelity, Male Sexual Dysfunction, Will, Protection, Business, Money, Games of Chance
Magical/Ritual Lore: Legend has it that the ancient Romans had a statue of Venus made of lodestone and an image of Mars fashioned of iron. When the two statues were placed near one another in the temple, Venus attracted Mars. Tales (never substantiated) also sing the praises of a statue that was permanently suspended in the air through the use of lodestones. The stone was associated with the hero Hercules in the times past and so became to be a symbol of strength and invulnerability. In contemporary folk magic, the lodestone is thought to be alive. It is placed in a small bowl of water on a Friday to allow it to "drink", then laid in full sunlight to dry. When dry, iron filings are sprinkled on it as "food". Though there are variations on this procedure - some keep the stone in a red bag and sprinkle water and iron filings on it once a week - it is a common belief. Several hundred years ago it was believed that it was dangerous to carry a lodestone during a thunderstorm because it attracted lightening. A knife rubbed with the stone was not only magnetized, but any wound inflicted with it, however small, was thought to be fatal. The lodestone was once believed to be stripped of its magnetic as well as magical powers by the mere presence of a diamond or garlic. Giambattista della Prota, in his monumental 1558 work, Natural Magic, said he disproved such beliefs. Nevertheless, some still believed this was true. Fortunately, there was an easy way to restore the lodestone's powers. It was anointed with linseed oil, placed in a goatskin bag and covered with dirt for three days. Its use to strengthen virility and to cure male sexual dysfunction (impotency) spans the ages. Prostitutes once used lodestones to attract customers, and thieves relied on them to hide from authority. All this lore has sprung from the lodestone's natural magnetic quality. It and artificially created magnets share the power of attracting iron. Five hundred years ago this was a magical, miraculous property, and many believed a spirit or demon lived within the lodestone and gave it power. Though scientific investigation has explained magnetism to a certain extent, the lodestone continues to be used in spell and ritual.
It is also well known in Hoodoo and other American folk magic systems. Lodestones are sometimes painted green (for use in money spells), red (love), white (protection). Painting them is not, of course, magically important unless you deem it so.
Magical Uses: The lodestone is used to strengthen spells. It is added to sachets or herbal amulets, placed on the altar, or worn to increase the magician's ability to rouse and release energy. The larger the stone, the more inherent power within it. This is true of all stones, it is especially important with the lodestone, for the greater the size, the stronger the magnetic force. Lodestone's basic use in magic is attraction. Because the stone is a natural magnet, it is manipulated in ritual to draw objects or energies. The lodestone, owing to its magnetic powers, is used to draw out disease and pain from the body. True healers, who send energy into a sick person to speed the body's natural healing powers (or, specifically, to correct imbalances or blockages in bodily energy flows), may use the lodestone as a focusing device for their energies. It is said to be effective in treating rheumatism and headaches and in healing wounds. A small lodestone set in silver was though to sharpen the sight. Set in gold, the lodestone strengthened the heart. A folk spell designed to heal the body of any illness is quite simple: Hold the lodestone in your hands, then shake it vigorously while visualizing your illness draining from you and going into the stone. Bury the stone in the earth for a week following the ritual. Any lodestone used in healing rituals to absorb disease should be cleansed after each use or, if worn, every week or so. The lodestone is also worn or carried to attract friendship. If you've just moved to a new city or have started a job among unknown people, wear or carry a lodestone to meet new friends. The lodestone is also utilized to attract love. It is thought to be a magnet for hearts as well as iron, especially when worn in a ring. Place a pair of the stones within a circle of pink or red candles while visualizing yourself involved in a relationship. Feel the strong contact, the mingling of energies that comes with love. Visualize as well. Two lodestones are also often carried in small red bags for this same purpose, sometimes mixed with love-attracting herbs such as rose, yarrow, and lavender (as well as copper, another love-inducer). The lodestone is also worn to smooth over troubles in a relationship, especially arguing. Its basic function is to cool tempers and to allow true communication. A coral necklace with a lodestone suspended from it was once worn to facilitate easy childbirth. The lodestone's ability to overcome impotency has been mentioned above. A man suffering from sexual dysfunction can hold the stone in his receptive hand, visualizing satisfactory, complete, joyous sexual relations. Once this is done, he can carry the stone with him or place it beneath the mattress to release its powers. The stone and the visualization work toward rooting out the underlying cause of the sexual dysfunction. The lodestone has also been utilized as a protective amulet, being worn, placed in the home, or carried. A large lodestone surrounded by flaming white candles emits guarding energies throughout the house. It absorbs negativity but does not return it. Because of this such stones should be cleansed in salt water every Full Moon. Some carry two lodestones at all times - one to protect, the other to bring good luck. In ancient Spain carry a lodestone was thought to guard against all dangers from steel, lead, fire and water. For those lacking in will power (which is simply asserting yourself and acting in accordance with your goals), empower a lodestone through your visualization with this specific directive: "Strengthen my will." Then carry the stone and utilize the energies it sends you. It can be worn two inches below the navel or placed there while you are prone and visualizing yourself as being confident and secure. Because it is an attracting stone, the lodestone is used to draw money or business success. Place a lodestone in a green bag with a silver coin, a bit of gold (if you have it) or money- attracting herbs such as patchouly, cloves or tonka. Business people may place an empowered lodestone in the cash register or cash box or burn green candles around a lodestone to bring in customers. Finally, the lodestone is considered by some to be a potent gambling talisman. It is worn or carried for luck during betting.
Folk Name: Quicksilver
Energies: Projective, Receptive
Elements: Water, Earth, Air
Magical/Ritual Lore: Mercury - that strange, shining, molten "silver" that never solidifies. Mystically and magically mercury is a complex metal. It is possessed of a dual nature, yang and yin, metal and liquid. Due to its dense weight mercury is ruled by the element of Earth. Because it appears in a liquid state, it is also ruled by Water, and its rapid movements signify Air. Since Mercury is so poisonous this aspect could, perhaps, be ruled by Fire. Let's face it, mercury is strange. It has been used in magic partly because of its unique appearance and properties. For example, pools of mercury were once held in the hand and used as vehicles for scrying. Also used for this purpose were clear glass spheres, filled with mercury and tightly corked, then placed upside down on a stand. A gambling talisman popular to this day, consists of a hollowed nutmeg filled with mercury and sealed. This carried for good luck with cards, dice, horses and numbers. However - mercury is dangerous to breathe, ingest or even touch for prolonged periods of time. Its magical uses are therefore limited and, perhaps, needlessly risky. There are safer metals to use in magic - safer and cheaper as well. Don't use mercury. Please. "And Ye Harm None" applies to oneself as well as others.
Folk Name: Aerolith, Aerolite
Planet: none, meteorites are associated with the Universe
Elements: Akasha, Fire
Deity: The Great Mother
Associated Stones: Peridot, Diamond
Powers: Protection, Astral Projection
Magical/Ritual Lore: Meteorites have long been held in fascination by humans. They have been thought to be gifts from the gods and goddesses. Certain meteorites, such as the Kaaba stone in Mecca and a stone thought to represent the Great Mother Goddess of Phyrgia, have been worshiped as symbols of divinity. In Babylon the meteorite was a powerful magical protectant. It was thought to remove all evils due to its strange appearance and the "roar of its awful might". Peridot is often found in meteorites. Tiny diamonds were found inside meteorites that fell in Mexico in 1969 - the first discovered that had formed off of our planet. At one place or another on Earth, meteorites were used to explain the origin of life. If rocks fell to earth from space, so too could plants, water, animals and people. Symbolically, meteorites can be viewed as the spiritual penetrating the physical, as astral power, divine order or whim.
Magical Uses: Meteorites are unearthly things, literally. They possess the powers of intergalactic flight, of movement, of speed, and of the energy unhindered by gravity. Use them in rituals of protection. Place one on the altar near white candles; or carry in the hand. They are also called upon to promote astral projection. A small meteorite or fragment of one is placed beneath the pillow during attempts at conscious astral projection.
Folk Names: Fool's Gold, Pyrites, Iron Pyrite
Powers: Money, Divination, Luck
Magical/Ritual Lore: Pyrite was used by ancient Mexicans in fashioning polished mirrors, which may have been used to divine the future. Pieces of this strange mineral were also placed in American Indian shamans' medicine bundles, perhaps to lend extra energy. In ancient China this stone was used to guard against crocodile attacks, a problem which, fortunately, most of seem to avoid without the stone. Magical Uses:Popularly known as fool's gold, pyrite is often found associated with real gold. So who, exactly, is the fool? Because of the yellowish shimmer and shining nature of this "stone", it is used to draw wealth and money. Set five pieces of pyrite on your altar. Surround them with five green candles. Light the candles and visualize money coming your way, fulfilling your monetary needs. Pyrite is also carried to bring money and luck. A flat, shimmering surface of pyrite can be used as a magic mirror to awaken psychic impulses. Carried, it is a luck bringer.
Deities: Isis, Diana, Luna, Selene, Lucina; all Moon and night goddesses
Associated Stones: Emerald, Pearl, Jade, Lapis Lazuli
Powers: Invocation, Love, Psychism, Drams, Peace, Protection, Travel, Money
Magical/Ritual Lore: Silver is the Moon's metal. Because it is found in its pure form, it was one of the first metals to be used by humans. The metal's beauty and scarcity caused it to be fashioned into divine images and offering pieces. Throughout the world silver is identified with the lunar manifestations of the Great Mother, the eternal goddess. To this day Wiccan High Priestesses and those who view the Moon as a sacred symbol of the Goddess wear silver crescents in Her honor. Silver objects area also placed on the altar during Wiccan Full Moon rituals. Worshipers of the Goddess may ring silver bells to invoke Her presence during rituals. Since the bell itself is goddess symbol and since silver is dedicated to Her, this is a most effective and magically accurate ritual procedure. Silver is also a popular protective amulet. In China small children are guarded by silver lockets worn around the neck. French couples about to be married are protected by a silver chain. The notion that silver bullets destroy vampires and werewolves has been spread by modern literature and the cinema. Silver is the metal of emotions, of the psychic mind, and of love and healing.
Magical Uses: Silver jewelry or empowered stones, such as emeralds, pearls, jade, or lapis lazuli, mounted in silver rings are worn to attract love. Or, etch the symbol of Venus on a small round silver disc. Place a pink candle and burn while visualizing love coming into your life. Because silver is linked with emotions, some feel overwrought or emotionally overwhelmed if they wear it at the time of the Full Moon. If this occurs, be aware of it and, if necessary, wear some gold to balance yourself. Or, simply remove the silver. Silver is also a psychic influencing metal. When worn, it stimulates psychic awareness while lulling the conscious mind. Many psychics constantly wear silver in order to more easily tap into the subconscious. On the night of the Full Moon, scry with silver. Take any piece out into full moonlight. Compose yourself and hold the silver about two feet from your eyes, resting your hand. Catch the reflection of the Moon on the silver and gaze at this until psychic impulses become known. Donning silver jewelry before sleep is one method of producing psychic dreams. If the piece is set with moonstones or any other psychic stone, its effects will be more powerful. An alternative is to place an piece of silver beneath your pillow. Still your mind as you lie above the metal. Visualize your need for psychic dream. See yourself as remembering your important dreams in the morning. If you are angry or nervous, wear some silver. There is an old belief that anyone touched with a silver ring, no matter what stone was set in it, would immediately become calm. Silver is used for protective purposes. As the Moon reflects the light of the Sun, so too does its metal reflect negativity away from the wearer. Tiny silver globes (or any silver jewelry) are worn for magical security. Silver crescents, whose "horns" turn back evil, are popular worldwide. This metal is also fashioned into jewelry, empowered, and then worn to keep its wearer's thoughts and moods in line. Silver is said to be particularly potent in guarding travelers from dangers, especially while at sea. Something like two-thirds of the world's population use silver (or silver-coated coins) as money. It is extensively utilized in money-drawing magic.
Powers: Protection, Anti-Nightmare, Healing
Magical/Ritual Lore: At one time steel was thought to offer protection against fairies, who could apparently be mischievous.
Magical Uses: Steel is a relatively modern metal and has no great history in magic. However, some uses have been discovered and preserved. For example, small pieces of steel are carried to guard against negativity. A steel ring is also worn as a protective amulet. American Folk Magic: A steel ring worn faithfully on the hand prevents rheumatism. This, like many of these minor rituals, is rather difficult to prove. Or disprove for that matter. Our body can do amazing things for itself if our mind will allow it. If you open your mind to the endless possibilities anything can happen.
Powers: Divination, Luck, Money
Magical/Ritual Lore: An old Cornish spell states that to turn tin into silver, all the magician need do is place it in a tank of ants on a certain night of the Moon's cycle. Typically, the spell neglects to tell us which night- the first? The seventeenth? The twentieth?
Magical Uses: Tin, the metal of Jupiter, is used in divination similar to that discussed about lead. Tin is also carried as a good-luck piece, and the metal may be shaped into money attracting talismans such as minutely carved, tiny images of dollar bills.